Refereed journals
1. Shohamy, E. 1982. Predicting speaking proficiency from cloze tests:  Theoretical and practical considerations for test substitutions.  Applied Linguistics, 3, 1, 161-171.
2. Shohamy, E. 1982.  Affective considerations in language testing. Modern Language Journal. 66,1, 3-17.
3. Shohamy, E. 1982. The cloze procedure and its applicability for testing Hebrew as a foreign language. Hebrew Annual Review, 101-114.
4. Shohamy, E. 1983. The stability of the oral proficiency trait on the oral interview seaking tests. Language Learning, 33, 4, 527-539.
5. Politzer, R., Shohamy, E. & McRoarty, M. 1983.  Validation of linguistic and communicative language tests for Spanish-English bilingual programs. Bilingual Review, vol. x, no. 1, 3-20.
6. Shohamy, E. 1983. Rater reliability of the oral interview speaking test. Foreign Language Annals.16, 3, 219-222.
7. Shohamy, E. 1984. Does the testing method make a difference? The case of reading comprehension. Language Testing, 1, 2, 147-70.
8. Shohamy, E., Reves, T. & Bejerano, Y. 1986.  Introducing a new comprehensive test of oral proficiency, English Language Teaching Journal. 40, 3, 212-220.
9. Nevo, D. & Shohamy, E. 1986. Evaluation standards for the assessment of alternative testing methods:  an application.  Studies in Educational Evaluation. 12, 2, 149-158.
10. Shohamy, E. 1988. A proposed framework for the testing of oral proficiency. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. 10, 165-179.
11. Shohamy, E., Gordon, C., Kenyon, D., & Stansfield, C. 1989.  The development and validation of a semi-direct test for assessing oral proficiency in Hebrew.  Bulletin of Higher Hebrew Education. 4,1, 23-44.
12. Shohamy, E. 1989. Evaluating competence and performance in the foreign language classroom. English Teachers’ Journal. 39, 20-26.
13. Olshtain, E., Shohamy, E., Kemp, J., Chatow, R. 1990. Factors predicting success in EFL among culturally different learners. Language Learning. 40,1,
14. Shohamy, E. 1990. Language testing priorities: a different perspective. Foreign Language Annals. 23,5, 385-393.
15. Shohamy, E. 1991. Discourse analysis and language testing. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. 11, 115-131.
16. Shohamy, E. 1991. The Hebrew speaking test: An example of international cooperation in test development and validation. AILA Review. 7, 83-95.
17. Shohamy, E. & Inbar. O. 1991. Construct validation of listening comprehension tests:  The effect of text and question type. Language Testing. 8,1, 23-40.
18. Shohamy, E. 1991.  Connecting testing and learning in the classroom and on the program level. The Northeast Annual Report. 154-176.
19. Shohamy, E. 1991. International perspectives of language testing and systems and policy. ACTFL Annual Review of Foreign Languages. The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 16, 91-107.
20. Shohamy, E., Gordon, C. & Kraemer, R. 1992. The effect of raters’ background and training on the reliability of direct writing tests.  Modern Language Journal. 76, 1, 7-33.
21. Shohamy, E. 1992. Beyond proficiency testing: A diagnostic feedback testing model for assessing foreign language learning. Modern Language Journal. 76,  513-21.
22. Shohamy, E. 1994. The validity of direct versus semi-direct oral tests.  Language Testing. 11, 2, 99-123.
23. Shohamy, E. 1995. Performance assessment in language testing.  Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 188-211. 
24. Shohamy, E., Donitsa-Schmidt, S. & Ferman, I. 1996. Test impact revisited: Washback effect over time. Language Testing. 13, 3, 298-317.
25. Shohamy, E. 1997. Testing methods, testing consequences: Are they ethical?  Are they fair? Language Testing. 14, 3, 340-49.
26. Shohamy, E. 1998. Critical language testing and beyond. Studies in Educational Evaluation. 24, 4, 331-345.
27. Spolsky, B. & Shohamy, E. 1999. Language in Israeli society and education.    International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 137, 93-114.  
28. Jennings, M., Fox J., & Shohamy, E. 1999. The effect of choice on test takers’ scores in language tests. Language Testing. 15, 4, 426-456. 
29. Shohamy, E. 2000. Interfaces of language testing and second language acquisition, revisited. System. 28, 4, 541-553.
30. Shohamy, E. 2001. Democratic assessment as an alternative. Language Testing.
18, 4, 373-391.
31. Shohamy, E. 2003. The issue: Implications of language education policies for language study in schools and universities. (Lead article in  Persepctive accompanied by five commentaries). Modern Language Journal. 88, ii, 277-286.
32. Donitsa-Schmidt, S., Inbar, O. & Shohamy, E. 2004. The effects of teaching spoken Arabic on students’ attitudes and motivation in Israel. Modern Language Journal, 88, 2, 217-228
33. Ben Rafael, E., Shohamy, E. Amara, M.H. Trumper-Hecht, N. 2006. Linguistic landscape as symbolic construction of the public space: The case of Israel. Inernational Journal of Multilingualism.3, 1, 7-31.
34.  Shohamy, E. 2007. Language tests as language policy tools. Assessment in Education. 14, 1, 117-130.  
35. Shohamy, E. 2007. Reinterpreting globalization in the multilingual contexts.  International Multilingual Research Journal, 1, 2, 127-133.
36. McNamara, T., and Shohamy, E. 2008. Language tests and human rights.
International Journal of Applied Linguistics. 18, 1 , 89–95. (review article)
37. Levin, T. and Shohamy, E. 2008, Achievement of immigrant students in mathematics and academic Hebrew in Israeli school: A large scale evaluation study, Studies in Educational Evaluation, 34, 1-14.
38. Shohamy, E. 2008, Overview: Language policy and language assessment: The relationship. Current issues in language policy and language planning. 9, 3. 363-373.
39. Shohamy, E and Kanza, T., 2009, Language and citizenship in Israel. Language Assessment Quarterly. 6, 1, 83-87.  
40. Shohamy, E. 2009. Language policy as experiences. Language Problems and Language Planning. 33, 2, 185-189.  
41. King, K. and Shohamy, E. 2010. In Perspectives, Academic publishing: globalization and inequality. The Modern Language Journal, 94, 4, 636-664.
42. Shohamy, E. 2010.  Language teachers as partners in crafting educational language policies?  IKALA  Journal. 13,144.   
43. Shohamy, E. 2011. Assessing multilingual competencies: Adopting construct valid assessment policies. The Modern Language Journal. 95, 3, 418-429.
44. Shohamy, E. 2013. The discourse of  language testing as a tool for shaping national, global, and transnational identities Language and intercultural communication, vol 13, no 2. 1-12.

45. Shohamy, E. in press. Shohamy. The Weight of English in Global Perspective:  The role of English in Israel.  Language Diversity and Language Policy and Politics in Education, vol 36.                                                                                                                                                          
Chapters in books
46. Shohamy, E. 1980. Inter rater reliability of the oral interview and concurrent validity with cloze procedure in Hebrew. 94-105 in A.S. Palmer, P.J.M. Groot and G. Trosper (eds.) The construct validation of communicative tests: An introduction.  Washington: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.
47. Shohamy, E. 1983. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of oral interview and concurrent validity with cloze procedure. 229-236 in J. Oller (ed.) Issues in language testing research.Newbury House.
48.  Shohamy, E. 1983. Six methods for testing reading comprehension. 77-94 in Wesche, M. and DeBrisay, M. (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th Language Testing Colloquium. Ottawa.
49. Shohamy, E. 1984. The Hebrew language curriculum in Jewish schools. In Ackerman, W. Shohamy, E., West, J,. and Zisenwine, D. (eds.) A world survey of Jewish educational curricula:  The state of the art.  The Israeli -Diaspora Institute.
50. Shohamy, E. 1984. Input and output in language testing. 159-166 in Culhane, T., Klein Braley, C., and Stevenson, D. Occasional papers:Practice and problems in language testing.
51. Shohamy, E. 1985. An alternative model for assessing language proficiency at the end of secondary school. 149-156 in Kohonen, V., Klein-Braley, C. Y von Essen, H. (eds.) Practice and Problems in Language Testing. no. 8, AFINLA (Finnish Association for Applied Linguistics).
52. Shohamy, E., Reves, T. & Bejerano, Y. 1985. From testing research to educational policy:  Introducing a new comprehensive measure of oral proficiency. 133-144 in Kohonen, V., von Essen, H., and Klein Braley, C.  (eds.) Practice and problems in language testing, AFINLA (Finnish Association for Applied Linguistics).
53. Shohamy, E. 1992. The connection between testing and learning. 1-28 in Shohamy E. & Walton, R. (eds.) Assessment for feedback:  Testing and other strategies. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. Dubuque, IO.
54. Shohamy, E. 1993. The exercise of power and control in the rhetorics of testing. Carleton Papers in Applied Language Studies, X, 48-63.
55. Shohamy, E. 1993. The power of tests: the impact of language tests on teaching and learning. NFLC Occasional Papers, Washington DC.
56.  Shohamy, E. 1993. A collaborative/diagnostic feedback model for testing foreign languages. 185-202 in Douglas D. and Chapelle C.  (eds.)  A new decade of language testing research.Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, 185-202.
57.  Shohamy, E. 1994. Issues of language planning in Israel: Language and ideology. 131-142 in Lambert, R. Language planning around the world:  Contexts and systemic change. National Foreign Language Center. Washington DC .
58. Shohamy, E. 1994. The exercise of power and control in the rhetorics of
testing. 23-38 in Sajaavara, K. (ed.) Language testing: New openings.  Jyväskylä University.
59. Shohamy, E. 1994. The use of language tests for power and control. 57-72 in J. Alatis (ed.) Georgetown University Round Table on language and linguistics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
60. Shohamy, E. 1994. The role of language tests in the construction and validation of second language acquisition theories. 133-142 in Tarone, E., Gass, S. and Cohen A. (eds.)  Research methodology in second language acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Pubilshers. Hillsdale, New Jersey.  
61. Shohamy, E. 1995. Language testing:  Matching assessment procedures with
language knowledge.  142-160 in Birenbaum M. & Dochy, F., (eds.)  Alternatives in assessment of achievements, learning processes and prior knowledge.  Kluwer Academic Publishing, Boston, MA..
62. Shohamy, E. 1996. Competence and performance in language testing. 136-151 in Brown G. and Masmlijaer K. and K. Williams, (ed.) Performance and competence in second language acquisition. Cambridge University Press.
63. Spolsky, B. and Shohamy, E. 1996. Israel. 55-60 in Peter  Dickson, P. and Cummings, A. (eds.)  Profiles of language education in 25 countries: Overview of phase 1 of the IEA Language Education Study, Slough: National Foundation for Educational Research.
64. Spolsky, B. and Shohamy, E. 1997. Planning foreign language education: An Israeli perspective, 99-111in de Bot K. and Bongaerts, T. (eds.) Perspective on foreign language policy: Studies in honour of Theo van Els. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
65. Shohamy, E. 1998. Assessment in early age: Foreign language abilities of early language learners. 185-197 in M. Met (ed.) Critical issues in early second language learning.
66. Shohamy, E. 1998. Evaluation of learning outcomes in second language acquisition: A multiplism perspective. 238-261 in Byrnes H. (ed.) Learning foreign and second languages.  MLA’s Teaching Languages, Literatures and Cultures series.
67. Shohamy, E. 1998. Alternative assessment in language testing: Applying a multiplism approach. 9-114 in Li, E.S.L. and James G. (eds.) Testing and evaluation in second language education. Language Center, Hong Kong, University of Science and Technology.
68. Shohamy, E. 1998. The great debate: TESOL is a science, not an art.
 Journal of Imagination in Language Learning, vol. V. 8-26.
69. Shohamy, E. 1998. How can language testing and second language acquisition benefit from each other: The case of discourse. 156-176 in Bachman, L. and Cohen, A. Interfaces between second language acquisition and language testing research.
70. Shohamy, E. 1998. Language tests as de facto educational and linguistic policies. 23-42 in Berry, V.  and McNeill A. (ed.) Policy and practice in language education. The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. 
71. Shohamy, E.1998. Inside the “black box” of classroom language tests. Studies Anglica Posnaniensia  XXXIII, 343-352. (special issue in honor of Kari Sajaavara).
72. Spolsky, B. and Shohamy, E. 1999. The dynamics of Israeli language policy. Washington, DC: The National Foreign Language Center. Johns Hopkins University.
73. Shohamy, E. 1999. Fairness in language testing, 85-89 in Kunnan, A. (ed.) Fairness and validation in language assessment. Cambridge University Press.
74. Shohamy, E. 1999. Language and identity of Jews in Israel and in Diasopra, 79-99 in D. Zisenwine and D. Sher (eds.)  Studies in Jewish culture: Identity and language. School of Education, Tel Aviv University.
75. Shohamy E. and Spolsky, B. 1999. An emerging language policy for Israel: From monolingualism to multlilingualism? 169-184 in Weber, Peter J. (Hg.) Contact + Conflict: Language planning and minorities. Plurinigua XXI.
76. Spolsky, B. and Shohamy, E. 2000 “Language policy”. In Lambert, R. and Shohamy, E. (eds.)  Foreign language policy and pedagogy.   


77. Connor-Linton, J. and Shohamy, E, 2000. Register Validation, Oral proficiency, sampling and the promise of multi dimensional analysis. In Biber D. Variations in language.

 78. Inbar, O., Donitsa-Schmidt, S. and Shohamy, E. 2000. Students' motivation as a function of language learning: The teaching of Arabic in Israel.  In Z.Dörnyei & R. Schmidt  (Eds.) Motivation and second language acquisition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center.
79. Spolsky, B. and Shohamy, E. 2001. Hebrew after a century of RLS activities.  230-363 in J. Fishman, ed., Can threatened languages be saved? Reversing language shift, revisited: A 21st century perspective. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
80. Shohamy, E. 2001. The responsibility of the language  tester in Cooper, R., Shohamy, E.and Walter, J. New perspectives and issues in educational language policy. Papers in honor of Bernard Spolsky. John Benjamins Publishing Comopany.
81. Shohamy, E. 2001.  The relevance of language testing to second language            acquisition, 103-114. in Pürschel, Heiner & Ulrich Raatz (eds.) (2001)  Tests and translation: Papers in memory of Christine Klein-Braley, Bochum, AKS-Verlag.
82. Shohamy, E. 2004. Assessment in multicultural societies: Applying democratic principles and practices to language testing. 72-93 in Norton, B. and Toohey, K., Critical pedagogies and language learning, Cambridge University Press .
83.  Ben Raphael, E. Shohamy, and Amara M. and Trumper-Hecht, N. 2004. Linguistic landscape and multiculturalism: A Jewish-Arab comparative study.  Report published by the Steinmetz Center for Peace Research. Tel Aviv University.
84. Shohamy, E. 2005. Language rights in the multilingual society of Israel. In Ravid, D. & H. Bat-Zeev Shyldkrot (Eds.), Perspectives on language and language development. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
85. Shohamy, E. 2005. The power of tests over teachers: The power of teachers over tests. In D. Tedick (ed.) Second language teacher education: International perspectives. Lawrence Erlbaum 101-10.
86. Shohamy, E. 2006. Re-thinking assessment for advanced language proficiency, In Byrnes Heidi, Weger-Guntharp, Heather, and Sprang, Katherine A. eds. Educating for advanced foreign language capacities: Constructs, curriculum, instruction, assessment. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. 188-208.
87. Shohamy, E.  2006. The power of language tests, the power of the English language and the role of ELT. In C. Davison and J., Cummins, Handbook for ELT, Springer.


88. Shohamy, E. 2006. Imagined multilingual schools: How come we don’t deliver? 171-183 in Garcia, O. Skutnabb-Kangas, T. and Torres-Guzmán, E. (eds.) Imagining multilingual schools, Multilngual Matters Ltd. 

89. Levin, T., Shohamy, E., Inbar, O. 2007. Achievements in academic Hebrew among immigrant students in Israel. In Olshtain E., and Nava N., Hebrew in a global world. Magnes.

90. Levin, T. & Shohamy, E.  2007. The role of academic language in understanding the mathematics achievements of immigrant students in Israel. In Sunal, C.S. and Mutua, K., (eds.) The Enterprise of education: Research on education in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Middle East. Information Age Publishing. Tuscaloosa, Alabama; 313-336

91. Shohamy E. 2007. Tests as power tools: Looking backwards, looking forward. In Wesche, M. and Fox J., (eds.) A Retrospective look at language testing: Speaking from experience. Volume based on LTRC Symposium, Ottawa, July, 2005.


92. Shohamy, E. 2008.  At what cost? Methods of language revival and protection: Examples from Hebrew. In King K., Schilling-Estes N. Fogle L., Lou Jia J. and Soukup, B., eds. Sustaining linguistic diversity: Endangered and minority languages and language varieties. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 205-218.   


93. Shohamy, E. 2008. Language policies and language realities in Israel: A critical review, in Stavans, A. & Kupferberg, I., (eds.) Studies in language and language education. Essays in honor of Elite Olshtain. Hebrew University Magnes Press, Jerusalem.  


94. Shohamy, E and Waksman, S. 2009. Linguistic landscape as an ecological arena: Modalities, meanings, negotiations, education. In Shohamy, E. and Gorter, D. (eds.) Linguistic landscape: Expanding the scenery, Routledge. 313-331


95. Inbar-Lourie, O. & Shohamy, E., (2009) Assessing young language learners: What is the construct?  In Nikolov, M. (ed.) Contextualizing the age factor: Issues in early foreign language learning. Mouton de Gruyter   

96. Shohamy, E., (2009). Language tests for immigrants: Why language? Why tests? Why citizenship?  45-59, in Hogan-Brun, G., Mar-Molinero C. and Stevenson, P. (eds.) Discourses on language and integration, John Benjamins.  

97. Shohamy, E. and Kanza T. (2009). Citizenship, language, and nationality in Israel. In Extra, G., Spotti, M. and  van Avermaet, P., (eds.), Language testing, migration and citizenship: Cross-national perspectives, Continuum.

98. Shohamy, E. and Waksman, S. (2010) Building the nation, writing the past. 241-255 in Jaworski, A. and Thurlow, C. (eds.), Semiotic landscapes: Language, image, space, Continuum.
99. Shohamy, E. (2010), Cases of language policy resistance in Israel’s centralized educational system, 182-197 in Menken, K. and Garcia O. (eds.), Negotiating language policies in schools: Educators as policymakers: Routledge.                                                                                                                    
100. Shohamy, E. (2012), Linguistic landscape and multilingualism, 538-551 in Martin-Jones, M., Blackledge, A. and Creese, A., (eds.), The Routledge handbook on multilingualism. Routledge: London and New York.
101. Shohamy, E., and  Abu Ghazaleh-Mahajneh, M., (2012). Linguistic landscape as a tool for interpreting langauge vitality: Arabic as a ‘minority’ language in Israel, In Gorter, D., Marten, H.F., and Van Mensel, L. (eds.) , Minority languages in the linguistic landscape. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan.
102. Levin, T., & Shohamy, E. (2012). Understanding language achievement of immigrants in schools: The role of multiple academic languages. In M. Leikin, M. Schwartz, & Y. Tobin (Eds.), Current Issues in Bilingualism: Cognitive and Socio-linguistic perspectives add page numbers (pp. 137-155). Literacy Studies, Springer

103. Shohamy, E., (2012). A critical perspective on the use of English. In A. Doiz, D. Lasagabaster, D., and Siera, J.M. (eds.),  English-medium instruction at university worldwide: Global challenges (pp. 196-210). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

104. Shohamy, E. and Waksman, S. (2012). Talking back to the Tel Aviv centennial: LL responses to top-down agendas. In Christine Hélot, C., Monica Barni, Rudi Janssens and Carla Bagna (Eds.), Linguistic landscapes, multilingualism and social change. and others. LL: Multiple perspectives. (pp. 109-126). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang GmbH

105. Shohamy, E. (2013), Language policy and language justice in Israel. In S. Donitsa Schmidt and O. Inbar-Luria, (eds.), Issues in teaching languages in Israel. Tel Aviv: Mofet (in Hebrew).

106. Shohamy, E. (2013), Expanding the construct of language testing with regards to language varieties and multilingualism.  In D. Tsagari, D., S. Papadima-Sophocleous, and S. Ioannou-Georgiou (eds.) International Experiences in Language Testing and Assessment – Selected papers in Memory of Pavlos Pavlou. (pp. 17-32). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang GmbH.(Language  Testing and Evaluation Series, Vol. 28). 

107. Shohamy, E. (2013), A critical perspective on the use of English as a medium of instruction at Universities. In Aintzane Doiz, David Lasagabaster, Juan Manuel Sierra (eds.). English-Medium Instruction at Universities: Global Challenges. Multilingual Matters
(Five other chapters are now in press).

About Elana

Elana Shohamy is Professor of  Language Education at the School of Education, Tel Aviv University where she researches a variety of topics related to language policy in the context of conflicts and co-existence in multilingual societies, mostly of Israel. 
Elana Shohamy is a professor of Language Education at the School of Education, Tel Aviv University where she researches topics of multilingualism within the contexts of critical framework, language rights and co-existence.

Her work in language testing focuses on the power and misuses of tests in education and society and more recently on multilingual testing. The work in language policy addresses mechanisms used for creating de facto policies that penalize immigrants and minority groups.

In the past decade Elana researches ample dimensions of Linguistic Landscape (LL), referring to languages displayed in public spaces with a focus on LL as arenas of conflicts and contestation. Her books include: The Languages of Israel: Policy, ideology and practice (w/ B. Spolsky, 1999); The power of tests: A critical perspective of the uses of language tests (2001); Language policy: Hidden agendas and new approaches (2006); Linguistic landscape: expanding the scenery, (ed. w/ Durk Gurter, 2009); and Linguistic landscape in the city  (ed. w/ Ben Rafael and Barni, 2010). Elana is the editor of the journal Language Policy and the winner of the 2010 lifetime achievement award granted by ILTA in Cambridge, UK.

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